TO DISCUSS ORIGINALITY AND UNIQUENESS OF
PHILOSOPHY OF GURU NANAK
Nov 05, 2008
Guru Nanak (1469-1539 CE) originated a unique philosophy and challenged
the existing concepts about God, heaven/hell, reincarnation/transmigration,
idol worship, caste system, astrology, mantra systems, etc. in Southeast
Asia. But as the time passed some theologians started to misrepresent
his philosophy under the influence of Vedanta and Islam. Consequently,
some scholars started to declare Sikhism as a combination of Vedanta
and Islam. Papers are invited for Intra-religious Dialogue to discuss
the issues raised by such misrepresentations of original and unique
philosophy of Guru Nanak.
Guru Nanak (1469-1539 CE) originated a unique philosophy during
the Period of Renaissance (14th-16th century) when scientists where
challenging some religious concepts in Europe. During this period
Guru Nanak was challenging the existing concepts about God, heaven/hell,
reincarnation/transmigration, idol worship, caste system, astrology,
mantra systems, etc. in Southeast Asia. During the period of 18th
and 19th centuries some theologians started to misrepresent the
philosophy of Guru Nanak under the influence of Vedanta and Islam.
Such misrepresentations are still going on [16 & 25].
I have participated in some ‘Inter-religious Dialogue Conferences’
where scholars of various religions present the views of their religions
so that their religions are understood properly by others. I have
noticed that Sikhism is presented differently by different Sikh
scholars; consequently, the scholars of other religions carry home
the mixed message. The result of such different views about Sikhism
has led some scholars to believe that Sikhism is “Syncretism”
(combination of Vedanta and Islam). So much so some have challenged
the originality and uniqueness of philosophy of Guru Nanak.
To establish unison comprehension of Guru Nanak’s ‘Original
and Unique Philosophy’, this paper discusses: Causes of misrepresentation
of Sikhism as Syncretism and Challenge to Originality and Uniqueness
Finally a proposal has been prepared to hold a series of Intra-religious
Dialogues on Sikhism to settle this confusion about the originality
and uniqueness of philosophy of Guru Nanak among the scholars of
Bouquet  writes that “Sikhism is the fruit of hybridization
between Islam and Hinduism.” McLeod  says that it is the
usual interpretation of the religion of Guru Nanak and his successors,
and among Western writers it would appear to be universal assumption.
Accordingly he quoted Noss  that: “Sikhism is properly
regarded as a blend of Hindu beliefs and Islam, ‘an outstanding
example of conscious religious syncretism’ a noble attempt
to fuse in a single system elements drawn from two separate and
largely disparate religions.” McLeod further quotes Khushwant
Singh  as another metaphor which evidently expresses same interpretation:
“Sikhism was born out of wedlock between Hinduism and Islam.”
Grewal  has reported that Guru Nanak’s religion has been
regarded as mixture of Hinduism and Islam and also has some influence
of Sufism and Yogis by some writers (Aziz Ahamed, Chhajju Singh
Bawa, Gurmit Singh, Loehlin, C. H., Sher Singh, Tara Chand, and
Now the recent trend is that originality and uniqueness of philosophy
of Guru Nanak is being challenged by some writers. This has happened
due to misrepresentation of Sikhism.
CAUSES OF MISREPRESENTATION OF SIKHISM
The main cause of misrepresentation of Sikhism has been summed up
by Prof Puran Singh as follows :
“It is to be regretted that Sikh and Hindu scholars are interpreting
Guru Nanak in the futile terms of the colour he used, the brush
he took; are analyzing the skin and flesh of his words and dissecting
texts to find the Guru’s meaning to be the same as of the
Vedas and Upanishad! This indicates enslavement to the power of
Brahmanical tradition. Dead words are used to interpret the fire
of the Master’s soul! The results are always grotesque and
clumsy translations which have no meaning at all.”
Some specific causes are as follows:
i) Status of Bhagat Bani
I sometimes wonder that the observations of McLeod  about placing
Guru Nanak in ‘Sant Tradition’ might be based on the
writings of some Sikh scholars, especially, Sahib Singh  who
has emphatically proved that Bani of the Bhagats of ‘Sant
Tradition’ is exactly in the conformity with the Bani of Guru
Nanak. It has further been confirmed by Harbans Singh , Nirbhai
Singh , Shashi Bala  and many others. Consequently, such
writings lead to a conclusion that Guru Nanak was following the
philosophy of Bhagats.
In Sikhism it is very difficult to go against the establish concept
of the stalwart Sikh theologians to put Sikhism on its real perspective.
Same situation is found about the Bhagat Bani that as soon as anybody
dares to write against the above established concept about the Bhagat
Bani that researcher is met with severe criticism or sometimes is
excommunicated. Therefore, it has become difficult for new researchers
to go against the established concept in Sikhism. However, Pashaura
Singh [21, p- 7-8.] took a courageous step to point out his views
about Bhagat Bani as follows:
“…In the light of these observations it may be stated
that the selections from the Bhagat Bani were not made exclusively
on the bases of identity with the teachings of the Gurus. There
is difference as well as identity. It is important to note that
the Gurus were deeply concerned about cultivating a particular Sikh
view of true teachings, practice and community by way of commenting
on and editing the received tradition of the Bhagat Bani.”
Pashaura Singh [21, p-186] further strengthened his above research,
“It should be emphasized that the disagreement with the Bhagats
on essential points are very important in the process of Sikh self-definition.
This is a fact that has been ignored in the traditional view that
holds that the selection of the Bhagat Bani was made exclusively
on the basis of ideological identity with the teachings of the gurus.”
, by quoting the views of Nirharranjan Ray , which are as follows:
“[The] Sikh Gurus took consciously a series of steps directed
towards marking themselves and their followers out as a community
with an identity of their own, clearly distinct from both Hindus
and Muslims. They are critical of both these communities, on more
counts than one, and the Gurus from Guru Nanak downwards never felt
tired of repeating this fact of their lives, times without number,
by pointing out where they differed.”
ii) Influence of Vedanta in Universities
Taran Singh , the then Head, Department of Sri Guru Granth Sahib
Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala, admits that the Sikh and non-Sikh
writers belonging to various Viakhia Parnalian (Schools of Interpretations)
of 18th and 19th centuries had accepted that Gurus’ philosophy
is based on Vedantic philosophy:
“ ivAwiKAwkwrI dy swry XqnW nUN smu~cy qor qy idRStI gocr
krn nwl swnUM ieau pRqIq hoieAw hY ik BwvyN kihx nUM AT ivAwiKAw
pRxwlIAW kMm kr cukIAW hn, pr ienW dIAW syDW ivc koeI buinAwdI AMqr
nhIN sI Aqy nw hI iehnW dIAW pRwpqIAW ivc koeI Prk hY [ guru –drSn
jW gurmiq iPlwsPI dw inrxw krnw bhuq cyqMn rUp ivc ienW XqnW dw
pRXojn nhIN irhw [ ijQoN qIk ies sbMD koeI prwpqI hY, aus dw inrxw
ieh pRqIq huMdw hY ik sB prxwlIAW ny gur-drSn vYidk hI mMinAw hY
ik gurU dI iPlwsPI Awm bRwhmxI jW ihMdU iPlwsPI qO iBMn nhIN hY
[[Taran Singh – in Foreword].
Taran Singh further says that it appears that universities have
taken good steps, although their research could only establish that
the truth in the AGGS is not different than the truth of ancient
India but this is a powerful achievement:
“pRqIq huMdw hY ik XnIvrisyItIAW nY hr p~K ivc cMgIAW dulWGW
pu~tIAW hn [ BwvyN soD ieho sQwipq kr skI hY ik sRI guru gRiQ dw
s~c pRwcIn BwrqI s~c dy sMklp qoN iBn nhIN hY, pr ieh bVI pRbl pRwpqI
hY [ [Taran Singh – in Foreword].
From the above statements of Taran Singh it becomes quite clear
that Gurus’ philosophy was not only accepted as Vedantic philosophy
by the early Sikh scholars of 18th and 19th centuries but the university’s
professors also accepted it so.
However, he also says that:
“ gurmiq mwrg jW swDnW bwry ieh pRxwlIAW vDyry cyqMn sn Aqy
iehnW ny bRwhmxI, ihMdU qY SYv mwrgW nwlON gurmiq-mwrg dI iBMnqw
idRV kIqI hY[”
(That these schools were more conscious about the ‘Gurmat
Marg’ or ‘Sidhant’ and these schools have confirmed
the dissimilarity between Brahmani, Hindu and Shaiv Margs and Gurmat-Marg.)
It is not clear from this statement what are that ‘Brahmani,
Hindu and Shaiv Margs’, which are different than that of Vedanta.
Besides, Joginder Singh  has also reported that right from the
very beginning the old schools of Sikhism (Sampradaya) were interpreting
Gurbani and representing Sikhism on Vedantic philosophy.
From the above discussion it is evident that Sikh theologians and
writers are responsible to put Sikhism into the fold of Sant Tradition
CAUSES OF CHALLENGE TO ORIGINALITY AND UNIQUENESS OF PHILOSOPHY
OF GURU NANAK
The way Sikhism has been represented by Sikh theologians and scholars
that it has reached at such a state that now originality and uniqueness
of philosophy of Guru Nanak is being challenged:
i) Originality of < Challenged
My critical study of the ‘Commencing Verse’, commonly
called Mool Mantra, of the Aad Guru Granth Sahib (AGGS)  indicates
that < is generally pronounced by many Sikh theologians and scholars
as eyku EAMkwru (Ek Oankaar) or eykMkwru (Ekankaar). And now it
is also being pronounced as eyku EAMm kwru (Ek Oam Kaar). The survey
of the available literature indicates that the early Sikh scholars
under the heavy influence of Vedantic philosophy have coined this
pronunciation because writing of 'Om' or ‘Oam’ or 'Oankaar'
or ‘Oamkaar’ before every writings was very common in
the ancient literature. Therefore, they have equated ‘Open
Oara’ in < as ‘Om’ or ‘Oam’ which
is known as ‘Oankaar’ or ‘Omkaar’ or ‘Oamkaar’
in various Upanishads.
Giani Harbans Singh  says that it is not known who first started
to pronounce < as eyku EAMkwru (Ek Oankaar) or eykMkwru (Ekankaar).
However, it is very clear that Bhai Gurdas  might be the first
Sikh scholar who has pronounced < as eyku EAMkwru (Ek Oankaar)
as is evident from his Pauri 15 of Vaar 3:
eykw1 eykMkwr2 ilK3 idKwilAw4 ]
aUVw5 EAMkwr6 pws7 bhwilAw8 ]
In this Pauri Bhai Gurdas has declared ‘eykw’ (one)
as eykMkwr’ (Ekankaar) and ‘aUVw’ as ‘EAMkwr’
(Oankaar). It indicates that < should be pronounced as ‘Ekankaar
Oankaar according to the above explanation.
Thereafter, it were the Nirmalas, the authors of Faridkote Wala
Teeka  who pronounced < as Ek Oamkaar. Then Prof Sahib Singh
 followed Faridkote Wala Teeka that Oora in < is ‘Om’
(Oam) and further explained < as iek + E or EAN or EN (Oam or
Om) + kwr (extended end of Oora) and pronounced < as ‘eyku
EAMkwru' (Ek Oankaar). Bhai Kahn Singh  also explained <
very similar to that described by Prof Sahib Singh. Consequently,
other theologians and scholars jumped into the bandwagon of scholars
of Vedantic philosophy and accepted the open 'Oora' as 'Oam' or
'Om' and extended end as 'kaar' and started to pronounce < as
eyku EAMkwru (Ek Oankaar) or eykMkwr (Ekankaar ) or eyku EAMmkwru
It is clear from the above discussion that the stalwart Sikh theologians
have encouraged Parma Nand to declare the following statement openly
right at Guru Nanak Dev University in a seminar on ‘Mool Mantra’
held on November 1969 to commemorate the 500th Birthday (Parkash
Divas) of Guru Nanak:
“< is not a new word coined by Guru Nanak but he borrowed
it from Upanishads because 'Oankaar' or 'Omkaar' has been used in
various Upanishads. The only thing Guru Nanak did was to add numeral
'1' to confirm the 'Oneness' of God, which is also found in the
Some theologians tried to justify that although the ‘Open
Oora’ in < represents Oam (Om), the Trinity, but adding
numeral 1 (One) Guru Nanak has made it One God. This so-called originality
of Guru Nanak was also challenged by Parma Nand  that it is also
found in Upanishad that the Trinity originated from One God.
ii) Originality of Nanakian Philosophy as a Whole Challenged
Dr Suniti Kumar Chatterji, President, Sahitya Akademi has belittled
Nanakian Philosophy in the ‘Foreword’ to the book Guru
Nanak: Founder of Sikhism written by Dr Trilochan Singh, who is
held in high esteem as a scholar and the book was published by Delhi
Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee .This book was written on
the eve of celebration of the 500th Birthday (Parkash Divas) of
Guru Nanak. It is ironic that Trilochan Singh failed to notice Chatterji’s
following statement belittling the Guru:
"The people of the Punjab (and along with them those of the
rest of India) became immediately conscious of the value of Guru
Nanak's advent and his teachings after he began to preach to them;
and Guru Nanak built up and organised during his life time a very
important religious persuasion which was broad-based on the foundations
of Vedatic Monotheistic Jnana and Puranic Bhakti. The faith preached
by Guru Nanak was nothing new for India, it was basically the old
monotheistic creed of the ancient Hindus as propounded in the Vedas
and the Upanishads - the Vedanta with its insistence upon Jnana
or Knowledge of the One Supreme Reality. And this monotheistic basis
was fortified, so to say, to put the matter in a simple form by
Bhakti or faith as inculcated in later Puranic Hinduism. The Sikh
Panth was nothing but a reformed and simplified Sanatana Dharma
of medieval times."
The sacred writings of the Sikhs have been translated by the prominent
Sikh theologians, scholars and historians like, Trilochan Singh,
Jodh Singh, Kapur Singh, Bawa Harkrishan Singh and Khushwant Singh.
Dr S Radhakrishnan undermined the philosophy of Guru Nanak in INTRODUCTION
to that book as follows :
“At a time when men were conscious of failure, Nanak appeared
to renovate the spirit of religion and the humanity. He did not
found a new faith or organize a new community. That was done by
his successor, notably the fifth Guru. Nanak tried to build a nation
of self-respecting men and women, devoted to God and their leaders,
filled with sense of equality and brotherhood for all.
The Gurus are the light-bearers to mankind. They are the messengers
of the timeless. They do not claim to teach a new doctrine but only
to renew the eternal wisdom. Nanak elaborated the views of Vaisnava
iii) Uniqueness of Nanakian Philosophy Challenged Verbally
I was wonder stuck when Swami Sarvpriyanand of Ramakrishna Mission
posed a challenging question during the Question-Answer time of
Plenary Session 10: World Challenges, (Moderated by the author of
this article) of Interfaith Conference and Celebration of Gurta
Gaddi Divas held on September 25-28, 2008 at Nanded, Maharashtra,
His challenging question was:
Quote a single example of uniqueness of Sikhism which is not based
However, before responding to his question I inquired from Swami
Sarvpriyanand if Krishna has said in Bhagavad Geeta something like
“I will come to this Earth in human form again and again whenever
there is decline in righteousness.”
His answer was: Yes.
Now I have looked into some sources and found the exact wording
of the following two quotes from Bhagavad Geeta, which convey the
same theme I required confirmation from Mr Sarvpriyanand:
"yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata
abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srjamy aham."
"Whenever there is a decay of righteousness, O Bharata, and
a rise of unrighteousness, then I manifest Myself in every age"
- Srimad Bhagavad Geeta (4:7)
"paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam
dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge."
“For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the
wicked, and for the establishment of dharma, I am born in every
Bhagavad Geeta, Verse 8.
Then I quoted that God is ‘?????’(Ajuni) as described
by Guru Nanak in the ‘Commencing Verse’ (commonly called
Mool Mantra) of the Aad Guru Granth Sahib (AGGS). This word, ‘?????’(Ajuni),
is generally translated/interpreted in a simple language that ‘God
does not take birth and does not die’. However, by using my
knowledge about God as described by Guru Nanak and further explained
by the other Sikh Gurus and my knowledge about life, death and soul
I interpret ‘?????’(Ajuni) as:
‘God does not come into anthropomorphic form’ as is
explained by Einstein . It means that God does not assume human
form to come to this Earth to resolve the troubled world. My above
explanation is based on the following Gurbani phrases :
Guru Nanak has explained AjUnI (Ajuni) as follows:
jnim1 mrix2 nhI DMDw3 DYru4 ]
Aggs, m 1, p-931.
(God) is free from birth1 and death2 and is not involved in worldly
AGGS, M 1, p 931.
This characteristic of ‘not coming into anthropomorphic form’
of God founded by Guru Nanak has been further strengthened by Guru
Arjan in the following phrases:
qU1 pwrbRhmu2 prmysru3 join4 nw AvhI ]
Aggs, m 5, p-1095.
You1, the Infinite2 and Greatest3 of all and do not come in life-death
AGGS, M 5, p 1095.
jnm1 mrx2 qy rhq3 nwrwiex4 ]
Aggs, m 5, p-1136.
The God4 is free3 from birth1 and death2.
AGGS, M 5, p 1136.
Note: This phrase particularly refers to Krishna.
In continuation of the above phrase Guru Arjan further strengthens
the basic principle of Nanakian Philosophy, ‘God does not
come into anthropomorphic form’, in very strong words as follows:
so1 muKu2 jlau3 ijqu4 khih5 Twkuru6 jonI7]3]
Aggs, m 5, p-1136.
That1 mouth2 be burnt3, which4 says5 that God6 comes in anthropomorphic
form7 (takes birth in human body). 3.
AGGS, M 5, p 1136.
I must make it clear here that I have no attention to criticize
any religious belief of others, however, I have tried to portray
that the philosophy of Guru Nanak is original and unique and is
not based on any other philosophy.
ORIGINALITY AND UNIQUENESS OF PHILOSOPHY OF GURU NANAK
First of all I would like to discuss what Arnold Toynbee thinks
about the Adi Granth (Aad Guru Granth Sahib) :
“Mankind’s religious future may be obscure; yet one
thing can be foreseen: the living higher religions are going to
influence each other more than ever before, in these days of increasing
communication between all parts of the world and all branches of
the human race in this coming religious debate, the Sikh religion,
and its scriptures the Adi Granth, will have something of special
value to say to the rest of the world.”
Toynbee admits that “Mankind’s religious future may
be obscure;” I agree with him to a great extent. I also agree
with his second observation that “…the Sikh religion,
and its scriptures the Adi Granth, will have something of special
value to say to the rest of the world.” Here we are concerned
about this part. What is that “something”? I am sure
that it is originality and uniqueness of Nanakian Philosophy embodied
in the Bani of Guru Nanak, which has been further elaborated and
strengthened by the Sikh Gurus who succeeded to the ‘House
of Nanak’ in their Bani which has been incorporated in the
Aad Guru Granth Sahib along with that of Guru Nanak .
CALL FOR PAPERS
Should not the scrupulous Sikh theologians and researchers get together
to portray systematically the originality and uniqueness of Nanakian
Philosophy? Consequently, it would lead us to formulate concise
and comprehensive philosophy of Sikhism so that every Sikh can talk
about Sikhism in its real perspective to remove the confusion of
Sikhism as syncretism or based on Vedanta. The author has done some
basic work on this issue in his book, NANAKIAN PHILOSOPHY: Basics
for Humanity . This could be a steppingstone to achieve our goal.
Since there is a provision to hold Intra-religious Dialogues in
the forthcoming Conference of Council of Parliament of World Religions
I strongly believe that there is a dire need to hold Intra-religious
Dialogue on Sikhism with various Sikh theologians and researchers,
experts in various fields to have some common basic principles on
which most of the scholars could agree.
Before we discuss the issue of Intra-religious Dialogue on Sikhism
it is very import to discuss what is so-called ‘Sikh Religion’
or ‘Sikhism’? In my opinion the so-called ‘Sikh
Religion’ or ‘Sikhism’, in fact, is ‘Sikhi’.
Therefore, the first hurdle to be crossed is to define SIKHI. Once
‘Sikhi’ is defined, which has been anglicized as ‘Sikhism’
by adding suffix, -ism, the other important topics to be discussed
one by one to portray the originality and the uniqueness of philosophy
of Guru Nanak are as follows:
1. Concept of God
2. Origin of Universe
3. Heaven and Hell
4. Mantra System
7. Gurbani and Science
8. Gurbani and Bhagat Bani
9. And many other topics will come up during the discussion of the
Keeping in view the sensitivity because of different opinions about
Sikhism among the Sikh theologians and the researchers the suggested
Intra-religion Dialogue on Sikhism will be just the foundation of
series of such conferences to be followed.
The first Intra-religious Dialogue on Sikhism is being arranged
as one of the various sections of the Conference being held by the
Council of Parliament of World Religions at Melbourne, Australia
on December 3-9, 2009. Please visit the following site for complete
information on the above conference:
The interested scholars are requested to contact Prof Devinder
Singh Chahal, PhD, President, Institute for Understanding Sikhism,
Email: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org as soon as possible
before January 31, 2009.
The author is very grateful to Dr Avtar Singh Dhaliwal and Dr Parminder
Singh Chahal for their suggestions to improve the presentation of
1. AGGS = Aad Guru Granth Sahib. 1983 (reprint). Publishers: Shiromani
Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar. (M = Mahla, i.e., succession
number of the Sikh Gurus to the House of Nanak, M is replaced with
the name of Bhagat/ Bhatt for their Bani, p = Page of the AGGS).
2. Bala, Shashi. 1999. Bhagat Bani in Guru Granth Sahib. In: Bhatia,
Sardar Singh and Spencer, Anand (eds.).1999. The Sikh Tradition:
A Continuing Reality. Publishing Bureau Punjabi University, Patiala.
3. Bouquet, A. C. 1954. Sacred Books of the World. Harmondsworth,
4. Chahal, D. S. 2008. Nanakian Philosophy: Basics for Humanity.
Institute for Understanding Sikhism, 4418 Marin-Plouffe, Laval,
Quebec, Canada. H7W 5L9. Distributors: Singh Brothers, SCO 223-224,
City Centre, Amritsar 143 001.
5. Faridkote Wala Teeka on line: SriGranth.org
6. Grewal, J. S. 1979 Reprint. Guru Nanak in History. Publication
Bureau Panjab University, Chandigarh.
7. Kumar, Rajanish. 1972. Preface. In: Hymns of Guru Nanak. (Translated
by Manmohan Singh). Language Department, Punjab, Patiala.
8. McLeod, W. H. 2003. The Influence of Islam upon the thought of
Guru Nanak. History of Religions. 7 (4) 302-316.
9. Nand, Parma. 1985. Ek - Oamkar. In: Sikh Concept of the Divine.
Pritam Singh, Editor. Pp 32-55. Guru Nanak Dev University Press,
10. Noss, J. B. 1956. Man’s Religions. New York, p 272.
11. Pais, Abrham. 1982. "Subtle is the Lord…" The
Science and the Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford University Press,
12. Ray, Nirharrajan. 1975. The Sikh Gurus and the Sikh Society.
Munishiram and Manoharlal, New Delhi.
13. Singh, (Giani) Harbans. 1988. Aad Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi)
Vols. 14. Gurmat Seva Parkashan, Patiala. India.
14. Singh, Harbans. 1994. Guru Nanak and Origin of the Sikh Faith.
Publication Bureau Punjabi University, Patiala.
15. Singh, Harbans. 1998. Encyclopaedia of Sikhism, Panjabi University,
Patiala (Entry ‘Sikh’ by Ganda Singh).
16. Singh, (Dr) Joginder. 1981. Japji de Teeke: Samikhyatmak Adhyan.
(Punjabi). Pub. Srimati Mohinder Kaur, 24 Green View, Patiala, India.
17. Singh, (Bhai) Kahn. 1981. Mahan Kosh (Punjabi). Bhasha Vibhag,
Punjab, Patiala, India.
18. Singh, Khushwant. 1963. A History of the Sikhs. Princeton, New
York, p 17.
19. Singh, Manmohan. Guru Granth Sahib. On line: SriGranth.org
20. Singh, Nirbhai. 1999. Guru Bani and Bhagat Bani. In: Bhatia,
Sardar Singh and Spencer, Anand (eds.).1999. The Sikh Tradition:
A Continuing Reality. Publishing Bureau Punjabi University, Patiala.
21. Singh, Pashaura. 2003. The Bhagats of the Guru Granth Sahib:
Sikh Self-Definition and the Bhagat Bani. Oxford University Press,
22. Singh, Pritam (ed.). 1985. Sikh Concept of the Divine. Guru
Nanak Dev University Press, Amritsar, India.
23. Singh, (Prof) Puran. 1981. Spirit of the Sikh. Part II Volume
Two. Punjabi University, Patiala.
24. Singh, (Prof) Sahib.1972. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Darpan. (Punjabi).
Vols 10. Raj Publishers (Reg.), Jallandhar, India.
25. Singh, Taran. 1997. Gurbani dian Viakhia Parnalian (Punjabi).
Punjabi University, Patiala.
26. Singh, Trilochan. 1969. Guru Nanak: Founder of Sikhism. Gurdwara
Parbandhak Committee, Delhi.
27. Singh, Trilochan; Singh, Bhai Jodh; Singh, Kapur; Singh, Bawa
Harkrishan; Singh, Kushwant. 1973. Selections from the Sacred Writings
of the Sikhs. Samuel Weiser, Inc., New York.
28. Vaaran Bhai Gurdas (Punjabi): Teeka by Giani Hazara Singh Ji
Pandit (Edited by Padam Bhushan
29. Bhai Sahib Dr Vir Singh Ji). 1984 Edition. Publishers: Manager,
Khalsa Samachar, Hall Bazar, Amritsar.